The relationship between metabolic syndrome criteria and preeclampsia in primigravid women

Maryam Kianpour, Shahla Norozi, Parvin Bahadoran, Leila Azadbakht



Background: Pregnancy is associated with many physiological changes, which in some cases may cause serious risks such as preeclampsia, and fetal and maternal health threats. Recent research has focused on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and preeclampsia. By identifying appropriate indicators for early diagnosis, maternal–fetal complications can be prevented. The present study aimed to investigate the association between metabolic syndrome indicators and the occurrence of preeclampsia in nulliparous pregnant women.

Materials and Methods: This was a prospective cohort study conducted on 220 nulliparous pregnant women (normal metabolic syndrome) from Isfahan health centers, Iran, selected by random quota sampling method. With physical examination and laboratory results, metabolic syndrome and preeclampsia in the second half of pregnancy were identified. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistical tests were used for demographic characteristics, and Chi-square test, Student’s independent t-test, and Fisher’s exact test were used to determine and compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome indicators and preeclampsia.

Results: The relative frequencies of preeclampsia in the group of pregnant women with metabolic syndrome and the healthy group before week 30 (P < 0.001) and after 30 weeks of pregnancy (P < 0.001) were significantly different. The results showed a significant difference in the mean triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose between preeclampsia and control groups; however, the mean high density lipoprotein (HDL) in both groups had no significant differences.

Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, it was found that in subjects with the metabolic syndrome during pregnancy, the risk for preeclampsia in the second half of pregnancy was higher than in the general population. In this respect, with the design of preventive programs, such as weight management and lowering harmful blood lipids, this complication in pregnancy can be prevented to some extent, or its serious complications can be decreased by early diagnosis. Controlling these indicators before pregnancy as preconception care for individuals at high risk of preeclampsia is recommended.

Key words: Body mass index, Iran, metabolic syndrome, preeclampsia, prenatal care

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