The results of pregnancies after gender selection by pre implantation genetic diagnosis and its relation with couple’s age

Sorayya Panahi, Fariba Fahami


Background: Non‑medical utilization of pre‑implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), like sex selection, is increasing, therefore it is necessary to follow‑up the health and outcome of fertilization and newborn’s birth followed PGD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of fertilization after sex selection by PGD and the relation between the age of parents and the outcome of fertilization.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive correlative study conducted on 218 couples in Isfahan. Samples were selected through convenience sampling. The rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy and abortion, the frequency of success in achieving the desired sex, and the mean of gestational age and weight of newborns were gathered through reviewing medical files and phone interviews. Data was analyzed using independent t test and Pearson correlation test.

Results: The rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy was 30.7% and 30.3% respectively, the rate of abortion was 26.9%, the frequency of success in achieving the desired sex was 100%, and the mean of gestational age and weight of newborns was 3260 (616) kg and 37.7 (2.07) weeks respectively. There was no significant relation between the age of parents and the rate of abortion, the rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy and newborn’s gestational weight. But there was a significant relation between the age of men and gestational age of newborns (P = 0.04).

Conclusions: PGD method was 100% successful in achieving the desired sex, but relatively high rate of abortion could indicate the effect of PGD on the embryo development process.



Abortion; age; chemical pregnancy; Iran;PGD;pregnancy;pre implantation; sex selection

Full Text:



Himmel W, Dahl E, Michelmann H. Preconception sex selection: A survey of visitors to an internet‑based health forum. Reprod Biomed Online 2008;16(Suppl 1):18‑26.

Strange H; Cesagen (ESRC centre for economic and social aspects of genomics). Non‑medical sex selection: Ethical issues. Br Med Bull 2010;94:7‑20.

Serour G. Religious perspectives of ethical issues in ART. Islamic perspectives of ethical issues in ART. Middle East Fertil Soc J 2005;10:185‑90.

Khalili MA, Khani B, Baghazadeh SH, Tabibnejad N. Sex selection by using albumin gradient technique for sperm separation in IUI cycles. J Reprod Infertil 2008;8:213‑20. selection 6. Noori‑daloii M, Rashidi‑Nezhad A. Pre‑implantation genetic diagnosis, importance, eye vision and applications. Journal Teb va Tazkiyeh 2007;16:70‑89.

Caldas GH, Caldas E, Araújo ED, Bonetti TC, Leal CB, Costa AM. Opinions concerning pre‑implantation genetic diagnosis and sex selection among gynecologist‑obstetricians in Brazil. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2010;148:158‑62.

Thomaidis L, Kitsiou‑Tzeli S, Critselis E, Drandakis H, Touliatou V, Mantoudis S, et al. Psychomotor development of children born after pre implantation genetic diagnosis and

parental stress evaluation. World J Pediatr 2012;8:309‑16.

Hardarson T, Hanson C, Lundin K, Hillensjö T, Nilsson L, Stevic J, et al. Preimplantation genetic screening in women of advanced maternal age caused a decrease in clinical pregnancy rate: A randomized controlled trial. Hum Reprod 2008;23:2806‑12.

Mastenbroek S, Twisk M, van Echten‑Arends J , Sikkema‑Raddatz B, Korevaar JC, Verhoeve HR, et al. In Vitro fertilization with preimplantation genetic screening. N Engl J Med 2007;357:28‑9.

Middelburg KJ , van der Heide M, Houtzager B, Jongbloed‑Pereboom M, Fidler V, Bos AF, et al. Mental, psychomotor, neurological and behavioural outcome of 2 year old children born following pre implantation genetic screening: Follow up of a randomised controlled trial. Fertil Steril 2011;96:165‑9.

Desmyttere S, De Rycke M, Staessen C, Liebaers I, De Schrijver F, Verpoest W, et al. Neonatal follow‑up of 995 consecutively born children after embryo biopsy for PGD. Hum

Reprod 2011;27:288‑93.

Mukherjee T, Flisser E, Copperman AB, Grunfeld L, Sandler B, Barritt J. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for gender selection: You don’t always get what you want. Open J Obstet

Gynecol 2012;2:291‑7.

De Vos A, Staessen C, De Rycke M, Verpoest W, Haentjens P, Devroey P, et al. Impact of cleavage‑stage embryo biopsy in view of PGD on human blastocyst implantation: A prospective cohort of single embryo transfers. Hum Reprod 2009;24:2988‑96.

Aflatoonian A, Mansoori Moghaddam F, Mashayekhy M, Mohamadian F. Comparison of early pregnancy and neonatal outcomes after frozen and fresh embryo transfer in ART cycles.

J Assist Reprod Genet 2010;27:695‑700.

Ganj lou J, Danesh AR, Hajzadeh MR, Torabizadeh A, Mazloom SR, Nejat Shokouhi A. Study of the Effects of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium Ions of women’s diet on the pre conceptional choice of the baby’s sex. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Science 2003;9:6‑12.

Shah PS; Knowledge Synthesis Group on determinants of preterm/low birthweight births. Paternal factors and low birthweight, preterm, and small for gestational age births: A systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;202:103‑23.

Henningsen AK, Pinborg A, Lidegaard Ø, Vestergaard C, Forman JL, Andersen AN. Perinatal outcome of singleton siblings born after assisted reproductive technology and spontaneous conception: Danish national sibling‑cohort study. Fertil Steril 2011;95:959‑63.

Wisborg K, Ingerslev HJ, Henriksen TB. In vitro fertilization and preterm delivery, low birth weight, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit: A prospective follow‑up study.

Fertil Steril 2010;94:2102‑6.

Bahrami N, Soleimani MA. Study of some related factors with fetal macrosomia and low birth weight. The Journal of Urmia Nursing and Midwifery Faculty 2014;12:45‑9.

Klonoff‑Cohen HS, Natarajan L. The effect of advancing paternal age on pregnancy and live birth rates in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization or gamete intrafallopian transfer. Am J

Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:507‑14.

Keshavarzi F, Rezaei M, Iranfar S, Fakheri T, Nankali A, Imani A. Advanced maternal age relationship with pregnancy complications. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci 2011;15:89‑93.

Yeh JS, Steward RG, Dude AM, Shah AA, Goldfarb JM, Muasher SJ. Pregnancy outcomes decline in recipients over age 44: An analysis of 27,959 fresh donor oocyte in vitro

fertilization cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Fertil Steril 2014;101:1331‑6.

Suzuki S. Obstetric outcomes in nulliparous women aged 35 and over with dichorionic twin pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2007;276:573‑5.

Dain L, Auslander R, Dirnfeld M. The effect of paternal age on assisted reproduction outcome. Fertil Steril 2011;95:1‑8.

De La Rochebrochard E, McElreavey K, Thonneau P. Paternal age over 40 years: The “amber light” in the reproductive life of men? J Androl 2003;24:459‑65.


  • There are currently no refbacks.