Effect of Face-to-face Education, Problem-based Learning, and Goldstein Systematic Training Model on Quality of Life and Fatigue among Caregivers of Patients with Diabetes

Reza Masoudi, Mohammad Ali Soleimani, Shahram Baraz, Ashrafalsadat Hakim, Yiong H Chan


Background: Education is a fundamental component for patients with diabetes to achieve good glycemic control. In addition, selecting the appropriate method of education is one of the most effective factors in the quality of life. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of face‑to‑face education, problem‑based learning, and Goldstein systematic training model on the quality of life (QOL) and fatigue among caregivers of patients with diabetes.

Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted in Hajar Hospital (Shahrekord, Iran) in 2012. The study subjects consisted of 105 family caregivers of patients with diabetes. The participants were randomly assigned to three intervention groups (35 caregivers in each group). For each group, 5‑h training sessions were held separately. QOL and fatigue were evaluated immediately before and after the intervention, and after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months of intervention.

Results: There was a significant increase in QOL for all the three groups. Both the problem‑based learning and the Goldstein method showed desirable QOL improvement over time. The desired educational intervention for fatigue reduction during the 4‑month post‑intervention period was the Goldstein method. A significant reduction was observed in fatigue in all three groups after the intervention (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of the present study illustrated that the problem‑based learning and Goldstein systematic training model improve the QOL of caregivers of patients with diabetes. In addition, the Goldstein systematic training model had the greatest effect on the reduction of fatigue within 4 months of the intervention.


Diabetes;face-to-face education; family caregivers; fatigue; Goldstein systematic training model; Iran; problem-based learning; quality of life

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