Exploring Self‑Care Needs of Pregnant Women with Gingivitis: A Qualitative Study in Iran

Babak Nemat‑Shahrbabaki, Arezoo Fallahi, Sina Valiee, Mozhdeh Zarei, Parisa Fallahi


Background: Oral self‑care behaviors are not satisfactory among pregnant women; incidence of gingivitis is high in them and training programs have slightly improved their gingivitis. This study was aimed to explore self‑care needs of pregnant women suffering from gingival inflammation.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Sanandaj, west of Iran, in 2017. Twenty pregnant women with gingivitis were included in the study. Data were collected via semi‑structured individual and group interviews and note‑taking, and were analyzed by conventional content analysis. To confirm the accuracy and strength of the data, credibility, confirmability, and transferability components were taken into account.

Results: The results of data analysis yielded six major categories, including “organizational support,” “dentist’s professional competence,” “increasing perceived threat,” “increasing self‑efficacy,” “increasing perceived benefits,” and “culture‑making.” Increased self‑efficacy was the most important concern of pregnant women.

Conclusions: The findings showed that self‑care behaviors to prevent gingivitis in pregnant women are influenced by various factors. It is essential to consider the cooperation of the media and organizations, support of society, and attention of families and authorities to oral health education and disease prevention among women.



Gingivitis, Iran, pregnancy, qualitative research, self‑care

Full Text:



Kisely S. No Mental Health without Oral Health. Can J Psychiatry 2016;61:277‑82.

Shamsi M, Hidarnia A, Niknami S, Atarha M, Jadidi R. Oral health of pregnant women in Arak, Iran. Payesh J 2013;12:355‑65.

Ryalat S, Sawair F, Baqain Z, Barghout N, Amin W, Badran D, et al. Effect of oral diseases on mothers giving birth to preterm infants. Med Princ Pract 2011;20:556‑61.

Srinivas S, Parry S. Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Outcomes: Time to Move On? J Womens Health 2012;21:121‑5.

Bahri N, Iliati H, Bahri N, Sajjadi M, Boloochi T. Effects of Oral and Dental Health Education Program on Knowledge, Attitude and Short‑Time Practice of Pregnant Women (Mashhad‑Iran). J Mash Dent Sch 2012;36:1–12.

Thomas N, Middleton P, Crowther C. Oral and dental health care practices in pregnant women in Australia: A postnatal survey. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2008;21:13.

Strafford K, Shellhaas C, Hade E. Provider and patient perceptions about dental care during pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2008;21:63‑71.

Hashemian M, Fallahi A, Gharibi F, Fallahi P. Explaining process of dental caries from women’s viewpoint: Study with grounded theory approach. Sci J Sch Pub Health Inst Pub Health Res 2014;11:65‑84.

Hashemian M, Falahi A, Tavakoli G, Zarezadeh Y, Nemat Shahr Babaki B, Rahaei Z. Study of the Impact of Education on Inter‑Dental Cleaning behavior based onTrans‑Theoretical Model. J Oral Health Prev Dent 2012;1:37‑46.

Shamsi M, Hidarnia A, Niknami S. Self‑Reported Oral Hygiene Habits and Self‑Care in the Oral Health in Sample of Iranian Women During Pregnancy. World Appl Sci J 2013;22:647‑56.

Yamaguchi Y, Miura S, Urata H, Himeshima Y, Yamatsu K, Otsuka N, et al. The effectiveness of a multicomponent program for nutrition and physical activity change in clinical setting: Short‑term effects of PACE+ Japan. Int J Sport Health Sci 2003;1:229‑37.

Al‑Hussainia R, Al‑Kandaria M, Hamadia T, Al‑Mutawaa A, Honkalab S, Memona A. Dental Health Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour among Students at the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre. Med Princ Pract 2003;12:260‑5.

Sheiham A, Watt RG. The Common Risk Factor Approach: A rational basis for promoting oral health. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2000;28:399‑406.

Kvale S. InterViews—An introduction to qualitative research interviewing: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 1996.

Mayring P. Qualitative content analysis. Forum Qual Soc Res 2000;1:1‑10.

Hsieh H, Shannon S. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res 2005;15:1277‑88.

Nickbin Poshtamsary S, Emami Sigaroudi A, Farmanbar R, Radafshar G, Atrkar Roushan Z, Bayat‑Movahed S. An Investigation into the Predictors of Behavior Promoting Oral and Dental Health in Pregnant Women Based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). J Dentomaxillofac Radiol Pathol Surg 2016;5:24‑30.

Solhi M, Shojaei Zadeh D, Seraj B, Faghih Zadeh S. The Application of the Health Belief Model in Oral Health Education. Iran J Public Health 2010;39:114‑9.

Tavakoli G, Falahi A. The effect of educating mothers in inter‑dental cleaning behavior on their children’s dental health behavior: testing the transtheoretical model. HEHP 2013;1:5‑19.

Parappa Sajjan P, Pattanshetti J, Padmini C, Nagathan V, Sajjanar M, Siddiqui T. Oral Health Related Awareness and Practices among Pregnant Women in Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. J Int Oral Health 2015;7:1‑5.

George A, Johnson M, Duff M, Ajwani S, Bhole S, Blinkhorn A, et al. Midwives and oral health care during pregnancy: Perceptions of pregnant women in south‑western Sydney, Australia. J Clin Nurs 2012;21:1087‑96.

Watt RG, Williams DM, Sheiham A. The Role Of The Dental Team In Promoting Health Equity. Br Dent J 2016;1:11‑4.

Shenoy R, Chacko V. Utilization of dental services due to dental pain by pregnant women in India: A qualitative analysis. J Interdiscip Dent 2013;3:18‑20.

Buerlein J, Horowitz AWC. Perspectives of Maryland women regarding oral health during pregnancy and early childhood. J Pub Health Dent 2011;71:131‑5


  • There are currently no refbacks.