Scoping Review on the Concept of Patient Motivation and Practical Tools to Assess it

Fatemeh Hosseini, Negin Masoudi Alavi, Eesa Mohammadi, Zohreh Sadat


Background: In this scoping review, the concept of patients’ motivation and the tools that have been designed to measure this concept in clinical settings are presented.

Materials and Methods: Arksey and O’Malley’s framework was used in conducting the current scoping review. Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant English articles published between January 1995 and January 2020 using the keywords motivation and tool, and their synonyms. Out of 2820 articles, 34 articles were chosen and were entered into the final analysis. Definitions of patients’ motivation were determined using Kyngäs et al., content analysis method.

Results: The findings showed that new tools had been developed in 38% of the studies and other studies had revised or translated existing questionnaires. Moreover, 62% of the tools were used to measure patient motivation in mental disorders. Most of the studies did not clearly define the concept of patient motivation in the clinical environment. The findings of content analysis outlined the 3 categories of motivation determinant factors, decisions, and behaviors that determine overall levels of motivations and its consequences.

Conclusions: Motivation is a dynamic concept and is a result of internal and external motives that lead to decisions and behaviors. There are limited tools for measuring motivation in clinical settings. This addresses the need to design specific tools in various diseases, especially chronic diseases. By the concept defined in this study, it is possible to design a short tool with general application that can be used in all diseases.

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