Resuscitation Team Members ‘Experiences of Teamwork: A Qualitative Study

Mohammad Hosseini, Abbas Heydari, Hamidreza Reihani, Hossein Kareshki


Background: Despite the obvious importance of teamwork in emergency care, the dimensions of teamwork in resuscitation remain a subject of debate among specialists and researchers. The aim of this study was to identify the dimensions of teamwork based on the experiences of members of the resuscitation team.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted between March 2020 and April 2021. By purposive sampling, participants were selected. Sixteen semi‑structured interviews were conducted with experienced emergency nurses and emergency medicine residents individually and analysed through deductive content analysis by using the Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) model. Interviews were encoded for analysis using MAXQDA software (version 2020).

Results: Three main categories were identified around teamwork in resuscitation. These categories were as follows (1) leadership, (2) teamwork, and (3) essential prerequisites for resuscitation. The main leadership category consisted of three sub‑categories of time management, resource allocation, and task management. From sub‑categories, situation monitoring, communication, and mutual support, the main category of teamwork emerged. Also, the emerging category of essential prerequisites for regeneration included two generic categories: professional requirements and workplace requirements and the teamwork category included situation monitoring, communication, and mutual support.

Conclusions: Based on the experiences of the resuscitation team members, leadership, teamwork, and essential prerequisites for resuscitation are the most important dimensions of teamwork in resuscitation. Recognizing the dimensions of teamwork in resuscitation is an initial step and then should be reflected in educational programs and future guidelines.


Crew resource management, healthcare, qualitative research, resuscitation, patient safety

Full Text:



Wai AK, Lam VS, Ng ZL, Pang MT, Tsang VW, Lee JJ, et al. Exploring the role of simulation to foster interprofessional teamwork among medical and nursing students: A mixed method pilot investigation in Hong Kong. 2020:1 9.

Anstey DE, Givens R, Clerkin K, Fried J, Kalcheva N, Kumaraiah D, et al. The cardiac intensive care unit and the cardiac intensivist during the COVID 19 surge in New York City. Am Heart J 2020;227:74 81.

Gaba DM, Howard SK, Fish KJ, Smith BE, Sowb YAJS. Simulation based training in anesthesia crisis resource management (ACRM): A decade of experience. Simul Gaming 2001;32:175 93.

Marshall S. The use of cognitive aids during emergencies in anesthesia: A review of the literature. Anesth Analg 2013;117:1162 71.

Hosseini M, Heydari A, Reihani HR, Kareshki H. Elements of teamwork in resuscitation: An integrative review. Bull Emerg Trauma 2022.

Sevdalis N. Non Technical Skills and the Future of Teamwork in Healthcare Settings. London: The Health Foundation; 2013.

Stacey M. Teamwork and Collaboration in Early Years Settings. Learning Matters; 2009.

West MA, Tjosvold D, Smith KG. The Essentials of Teamworking: International Perspectives. John Wiley & Sons; 2005.

Krajina I, Kvolik S, Steiner R, Kovacevic K, Lovric I. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, chest compression only and teamwork from the perspective of medical doctors, surgeons and anesthesiologists. Iran Red Crescent Med J 2015;17:e18208.

Khademian Z, Sharif F, Tabei SZ, Bolandparvaz S, Abbaszadeh A, Abbasi HR. Teamwork improvement in emergency trauma departments. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2013;18:333 9.

Pfaff J, Moore G. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. Otolaryngology chapter. Mastoiditis. Elsevier Publishing; 2018.

Blanié A, Arcile G C, Roulleau P, Benhamou D. An observer tool for to enhance learning of anesthesia resident’s non technical skills during high fidelity simulation: A randomized controlled trial. 2021.

McKay A, Walker ST, Brett SJ, Vincent C, Sevdalis N. Team performance in resuscitation teams: Comparison and critique of two recently developed scoring tools. Resuscitation 2012;83:1478 83.

Cooper S, Cant R, Connell C, Sims L, Porter JE, Symmons M, et al. Measuring teamwork performance: Validity testing of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM) with clinical resuscitation teams. Resuscitation 2016;101:97 101.

Valentine MA, Nembhard IM, Edmondson AC. Measuring teamwork in health care settings: A review of survey instruments. Med Care 2015;53:e16 30.

Fukushima Y, Yamada A, Imoto N, Iba T. Does TeamSTEPPS affect psychological status? Int J Health Care Qual Assur 2019;32:11 20.

Obenrader C, Broome ME, Yap TL, Jamison F. Changing team member perceptions by implementing teamSTEPPS in an emergency department. J Emerg Nurs 2019;45:31 7.

Paul ME, Dodge LE, Intondi E, Ozcelik G, Plitt K, Hacker MR. Integrating TeamSTEPPS® into ambulatory reproductive health care: Early successes and lessons learned. J Healthc Risk Manag 2017;36:25 36.

Porter JE, Cant RP, Cooper SJ. Rating teams’ non technical skills in the emergency department: A qualitative study of nurses’ experience. Int Emerg Nurs 2018;38:15 20.

Elo S, Kyngas H. The qualitative content analysis process. J Adv Nurs 2008;62:107 15.

Dunkel A, Meierewert S. Culture standards and their impact on teamwork—An empirical analysis of Austrian, German, Hungarian and Spanish culture differences. J East Eur Manag Stud 2004;9:147 74.

Pruden C, Beecham GB, Waseem MJS. Human factors in medical simulation. 2020.


  • There are currently no refbacks.