Related Factors to Paternal Adaptation: A Cross‑sectional Study for First‑time Fathers

Narges Eskandari, Masoumeh Simbar, AbouAli Vedadhir, AhmadReza Baghestani, Somayeh Momenyan


Background: Becoming a father challenges men’s ability and many men describe fathering as a negative and frustrating experience. This study was designed to determine related factors to paternal adaptation in first‑time fathers.

Materials and Methods: This cross‑sectional study was conducted in healthcare centers in Qom and environs, Iran, from July to September 2015. Participants were 572 first‑time fathers. Healthcare centers were selected by lottery and sampling was carried out continuously. Data were collected by demographic form and Paternal Adaptation Questionnaire; Spearman’s correlation coefficient, Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis test, and multiple linear regression model were used. p < 0.05 was considered as significant level.

Results: Participants were first‑time fathers with a mean (SD) age of 29.89 (4.45) years. The results indicated that planning for parenting is the most predictive factor in the ability to perform the paternal roles and responsibilities (β = 2.67, p < 0.001); marital satisfaction is the most predictive factor with regard to perceiving parental development (β = 3.09, p = 0.001) and stabilization in paternal position (β = 4.66, p < 0.001). Father’s self‑employment was the only predictive factor relating to challenges and worries (β = −1.19, p < 0.001) and marital satisfaction was the most predictive factor for paternal adaptation (β = 14.68, p < 0.01).

Conclusions: It appears that the father’s occupation, planning for becoming a parent, and marital satisfaction are the most predictive factors for paternal adaptation and its domains, thus by planning appropriate interventions aimed at developing the ability of fathers in these aspects, especially marital satisfaction, it is possible to facilitate men’s adaptation to paternal role.



Adaptation,fathers,parents,paternal behavior,psychological

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